• Primate Ecology &

    Molecular Anthropology Lab

    University of California Santa Cruz

    Anthropology Department


    Primate Ecology & Molecular Anthropology (PEMA) Lab

    Will Koomijan/emergentreeworks.com

    The PEMA lab at UCSC, which opened in 2018, works at the intersection of isotope biogeochemistry, primatology and archaeology.


    Our research mainly relies on stable isotope analysis (87Sr/86Sr, δ18O, δ15N, δ13C, δ34S, δ66Zn, δ56Fe, δ65Cu) in the study of primate ecology and past human behavior.


    We have a focus on establishing isotope baselines and isoscapes, which are fundamental to most isotope projects.


    We also employ direct observations and camera traps to study primate behavior in the wild, as well as rope based tree climbing for arboreal sample collection.

    • strontium extraction from skeletal remains, plants, mollusks and soil in clean lab setting
    • collagen extraction from bone/dentin
    • tooth enamel prep for 87Sr/86Sr, δ18O and δ13C analyses
    • processing of primate hair and feces meeting bio-safety standards (BSL 2)
    • enamel silver phosphate extraction (δ18O)
    • microscopy

  • TEAM

    Vicky M. Oelze

    assistant professor, lab PI

    lab director anthropology department

    Picture by Vicky Oelze

    Renee Boucher

    graduate student


    picture by Kyle Sweeney

    Seth Phillips

    graduate student



    picture by D. Ingleman

    David Ingleman

    graduate student


    Payton Sime

    field assistant at Issa Valley, Tanzania (with Seth Phillips, 2021-2022)

    Kayla Ott

    undergraduate student


    picture by Tony Estrella

    Tony Estrella

    undergraduate student

    & UCSC Koret Fellow 2021-2022


    picture by Virgile Manin


    assistant (2018-present)

    does not check his emails regularly

  • Chimp Video Coding Team

    in collaboration with GMERC we assess all camera trap footage from the Issa chimpanzee research site in Tanzania (2016-present)

    Vicky M. Oelze

    coordinator and PI

    picture by Kyle Sweeney

    Seth Phillips

    graduate student


    Payton Sime

    undergraduate peer advisor

    (2019-2021), Koret Fellow

    Picture by Lauryn Hobbs

    Lauryn Hobbs

    undergraduate (2020-2021)

    Picture by Vicky Oelze

    other active undergraduate team members:

    Kayla Ott, Jessi Dalconzo, Allegra Stahl, Sarah Copper, Vanessa Morgan

    (last update Spring 2021)

  • former members of the PEMA lab and field assistants

    Julie Elliot

    lab assistant (2020-2021)

    Chimp video coding team

                Brennan Popovic

    Picture by Vicky Oelze

    Brynn Lowry

    lab assistant


    Picture by Vicky Oelze

    Eden Washburn, PhD

    graduate student


    Picture by Vicky Oelze

    Cielo De La Rosa



    Isabella O'Neal

    lab assistant/ intern


    Kelsea Ranks



    Gabriel Granado

    Koret Fellowship


    Picture by Vicky Oelze

    Victoria Collins

    lab assistant


    picture by Vicky Oelze

    James Luce

    tree climber, field assistant (2017)

    Taï National Park

    Picture by Vicky Oelze

    Florent Gnimion

    field assistant (2017)

    Taï National Park

    picture by Vicky Oelze

    Rumen Fernandez Martin

    field assistant, tree climbing assistant (2016)

    Taï National Park

    Picture by Vicky Oelze

    Dr. Simone Ban

    field assistant (2015)

    Taï National Park


    our current research endeavors and the people behind them

    Pan African Strontium Isoscape

    Vicky M. Oelze

    The analysis of the stable isotopes of strontium (87Sr/86Sr) is a well-established tool in archaeological science to trace back the geological origin of an organism, e.g. where a person was born and raised. Several studies have measured the 87Sr/86Sr values in the remains of humans subjected to slavery in the Americas. However, these studies were largely unable to pinpoint human origins beyond the identification that some individuals must have been born somewhere in Africa because spatial bioavailable 87Sr/86Sr data barely exists for Sub-Saharan Africa. Environmental strontium isotope mapping of West and Central Africa can provide a solid foundation for future forensic investigations of historic human displacement during the transatlantic slave trade. This new map will also be relevant for wildlife forensics, as isotopes are a increasingly used method to identify hotspots of illegal poaching activity. This project has the potential to be have significant impact on the archaeology of Africa and the transatlantic slave trade, as well as for wildlife conservation. We are looking forward to possibly extending this project to sulfur, oxygen and possibly lead isotope data in the future.


    We are generously funded through the Webster Foundation and are collaborating on this project with the Pan African Programme (http://panafrican.eva.mpg.de/), former Primatology Department, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Leipzig, Germany, as well as many collaborating botanist and archaeologists worldwide.

    Cu, Fe, Zn and Sr isotopes as bio-markers of human

    and non-human primate life history

    Renee Boucher and Vicky M. Oelze

    While Strontium isotopes (87Sr/86Sr) have been used for two decades to reconstruct the mobility patterns of prehistoric people and even fossil hominins, the isotopic measurement of other elements with large mass have only more recently become technically feasible to be of use in anthropology. Initial work on Copper and Iron stable isotope ratios (δ56Fe, δ65Cu) suggests that there are significant differences between human males and females, presumably due to different metabolism and function of these elements in female reproductive physiology. The isotope ratios of Zink (δ66Zn) measured in tooth enamel have recently been described to correspond to the trophic level in the food web, making this element potentially extremely valuable for paleodietary reconstructions in fossils. We measure in enamel samples from the Tai chimpanzee skeletal collection to reconstruct female mobility and potentially identify the areas to which they were native. We measure δ56Fe and δ65Cu values to explore how these isotope systems between male and female chimpanzees to test the utility of this approach to differentiate between the sexes in other large bodied primates such as fossil hominoids. Finally we test the use of δ66Zn in enamel of wild chimpanzees to address questions of tropic level and meat consumption, where nitrogen isotopes yielded contradicting results.


    We are collaborating with Roman Wittig (Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Leipzig, Germany) and Klervia Jaouen (Géosciences Environnement, Toulouse, France).

    hunter-gatherer mobility revealed through strontium isotope analysis

    collaborations with archaeologists at UC Davis and Vicky M. Oelze

    We are collaborating with faculty members and graduate students from the Evolutionary Anthropology Wing of the Anthropology Department at UC Davis on several independent projects using strontium isotopes (87Sr/86Sr) to reconstruct prehistoric hunter-gatherer mobility and catchment areas. These projects include archaeological and modern material from South Africa, the United States and Peru. We provide fast sample turnover for environmental reference samples used to build regional 87Sr/86Sr isoscapes and prepare and analyze human dental enamel samples for 87Sr/86Sr and δ18O.


    We collaborate with Patricia McNeil and Teresa Steel (https://anthropology.ucdavis.edu/people/testeele), with Candice Ralston and Prof. Jelmer Eerkens (https://anthropology.ucdavis.edu/people/jweerken) and with Thomas Snyder and Prof. Randy Haas (https://anthropology.ucdavis.edu/people/wrhaas).


    Changes in crop management in prehistoric South Korea

    Vicky M. Oelze, Brynn Lowry & Gyoung-Ah Lee

    Together with archaeobotanist Lee we use stable isotope analysis to examine how ancient agricultural management practices in raised field farming have changed over time at the archaeological site of Pyeonggeodong in south-central South Korea. Alongside radiocarbondating, are analyzing the carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios in individual charred macoremains of barley (Hordeum sativum), wheat (Triticum aestivum), foxtail millet (Setaria italica), broomcorn millet (Panicum millaceum) and rice (Oryza sativa), as well as soy (Grycine max ssp.) and azuki beans (Vigina angluris). These specimen date to the Neolithic Chulmun period (~5000 calBP), the Bronze Age, Three Kingdom Period to the Goryeo Dynasty (~1000-500 calBP). We are specifically interested in how irrigation and manuring strategies have changed over time as farming transitioned from millet and azuki production to a larger diversity of cereals.


    We are collaborating on this project with Gyoung-Ah Lee (Anthropology Department, University of Oregon) https://anthropology.uoregon.edu/profile/galee/

    picture by Niina Nurmi (LuiKotale Bonobo Project)

    bonobo weaning behavior

    Vicky M. Oelze, with help of Isabella O'Neal and Kayla Ott

    Weaning, the process from breastfeeding to solid food intake in infants, is an important and critical phase in primate ontogeny which is extremely difficult to monitor in elusive wild primate species. Particularly in great apes such as bonobos (Pan paniscus), observations on breastfeeding and weaning are limited due to the arboreal nature of this species. Stable isotope analysis has proven to be a powerful tool to assess changes in diets of elusive animals over time. In this project we employ stable isotope analysis to indirectly and non-invasively monitor the process of ceasing breastmilk in the diet of wild infant bonobos by analyzing fecal samples from wild bonobos of the LuiKotale Bonobo Project in the Democratic Republic of Congo. By monitoring the weaning process throughout infant ontogeny in males and females, we will be able to address questions on sex biased maternal investment in wild bonobos.


    This project is a collaborative venture between the PEMA lab, Barbara Fruth and Gottfried Hohmann representing the LuiKotale Bonobo Project.

    The Hawaiian Social Zooarchaeology Project

    David Ingleman, advised by Eréndira M. Quintana Morales and Vicky M. Oelze

    Ritualized, politicized, and reciprocal relationships characterized the earliest historically documented Hawaiian interspecies interactions. However, following the colonial encounter, commodified forms of multispecies sociality and radically simplified plantation ecologies increasingly transformed the socio-natural environment. Working with legacy collections excavated from middens at the ʻIolani Palace—a key site of political authority in the Kingdom of Hawaiʻi from 1845 until 1893—and animal burials from other sites, this study will combine archival and artifact analyses with morphological, stable isotope, and genetic analyses of archaeofaunal remains to cast light on the multispecies practice and embodied experiences of nineteenth-century sovereignty in the Hawaiian kingdom. Initial results document both persistence and selective change in feasting and animal husbandry practices. For example, although historically undocumented, dog meat remained on the table well into the nineteenth century. On the other hand, stable isotope evidence suggests variability in animal husbandry practices. Moreover, metal tool butchery marks and the remains of introduced animal species, as well as possibly exotic breeds of domesticated dog and pig, shed light on dynamic interspecies interactions.

    picture by Kyle Sweeney

    chimpanzee termite fishing ecology

    Seth Phillips, advised by Vicky Oelze

    Seth is studying the relationship between chimpanzees and Macrotemes termites in the Isaa valley of Tanzania. He investigates how much of the termites' complex ecology and reproductive cycle effects the chimpanzees ability to successfully fish for termites across the seasons. How do chimpanzees know when it is a good day to fish? And how do termites respond to predation by chimpanzees and does that vary over time?


    Seth will examine whether the swarming behavior of the Macrotermes alates provides an ephemeral opportunity for chimpanzees to effectively termite-fish at Issa and beyond. Seth will experimentally replicate termite-fishing behavior at a selection of Macrotermes mounds. From long-term camera trap footage Seth will additionally assess the timing, the duration/intensity and the mode of chimpanzees visiting and re-visiting termite mounds.


    We are collaborating on this project with Alex Piel and the GMERC (http://gmerc.org/).

    "A bite of chimp habitat" - dental proxies for habitat in extant chimps

    Vicky M. Oelze with the PanAf and the MPWC

    Stable isotope ratios have been measured in a range of fossil teeth from early African hominins and great apes from Africa and Asia. Isotope data suggests that many fossil hominin taxa in Africa were adapted to open environments and depended highly on C4 plant food resources. Although savanna chimpanzees are frequently used to model the ecology of these fossil species based on the biochemistry of their tooth enamel, there is little dental enamel isotope data from different chimpanzee populations, and none from those inhabiting savanna woodlands, more similar to environments presumably inhabited by fossil hominins. The same can be said about dental microtexture analysis. We close these gaps by providing a combined carbon and oxygen isotope and dental microwear dataset from forest and savanna chimpanzees and by integrating comprehensive information on their habitats. We predict that canopy cover and habitat density will be differently be reflected in dental carbon and oxygen stable isotope ratios. Differences in the biomechanical properties of plant foods between savanna and forest habitats (van Casteren et al. 2018) will also be reflected in distinct microtexture patterns. By integrating detailed habitat and climate information to the dental ecology data we will provide a completely new framework for the interpretation of isotopic and microwear data from fossil primates, including hominins.


    Project PI Vicky Oelze (UCSC), with Gaelle Bocksberger (PanAf, MPI-EVA), Ellen Schulz-Kornas, Kornelius Kupczik and Adam van Casteren (MPWC and MPI-EVA).

    the demographics of termite fishing chimpanzees

    Victoria Collins and Vicky M. Oelze

    Wild chimpanzees across Africa fish for termites using complex tool kits made of sticks or other parts of vegetation. We still little understand how this complex cultural behavior and knowledge is transferred from one generation to the next via social learning. Using camera trap footage data from the Issa chimpanzees (GMERC), assistant Victoria Collins is investigating sex differences in chimpanzee termite mount visitation rates and how long females stay actively fishing at termite mounts compared to males, particularly when they are with their dependent offspring.


    We are collaborating on this project with Alex Piel and the GMERC (http://gmerc.org/).


    latest update 11/2021

    In the pipeline

    Washburn, E., Ibarra B., Titelbaum A.R., Fehren-Schmitz L., Nesbitt J., Oelze V.M. (accepted manuscript, Nov 2021): A multi-isotope approach reconstructing human residential mobility and diet during the Late Intermediate Period (AD 1000-1450) in highland Ancash, Peru. Journal of Archaeological Science - Reports



    Bocksberger G., Schulz-Kornas E., van Casteren A., Dieguez P., Agbor A., Deschner T., Goedmakers A., Granjon A-C., Kadam P., Kambi M., Leinert V., Meier A.C., Lapuente J., Piel A., Van Schijndel J., Sommer V., Stewart F., Ton E., Wittig R.M., Krüger S., Kupczik K., Arandjelovic M., Boesch C., Kühl H.S., Oelze VM (in prep): Dental paleoproxies in extant chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) relate to climate and vegetation characteristics across tropical Africa.


    Oelze V.M., O’Neil I., Broomand N., Schulz-Kornas E., Wittig R., Hohmann G. (in prep): When feces go to pieces: Biases in primate fecal isotope analysis and novel recommendations for sample preparation.



    Lowry, B.E., Wittig, R.M., Pittermann J., Oelze, V.M. (2021): Stratigraphy of stable isotope ratios and leaf structure within a tropical rainforest canopy in West Africa: Implications for primate feeding and isotope ecology. Scientific Reports 11, 14222. https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-021-93589-8


    Boucher R.D., Alavi S.E., De Jong H.N., Godfrey L. V., Vogel E.R. (2021): Copper (Cu) and iron (Fe) stable isotope evidence as an indicator of sex in mature rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). American Journal of Physical Anthropology. Early View online, https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1002/ajpa.24301


    Washburn E., Nesbitt J., Ibarra B., Fehren-Schmitz L., Oelze V.M. (2021): A strontium isoscape for the Callejon de Conchucos region of highland Peru and its application to Andean archaeology. PLoS ONE 16(3): e0248209. https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0248209


    Phillips S., Scheffrahn R.H., Piel A., Stewart F., Agbor A., Brazzola G., Tickle A., Sommer V., Dieguez P., G. Wessling E.G., Arandjelovic M., Kühl H., Boesch C., Oelze V.M. (2021): Limited evidence of C4 plant consumption in mound building Macrotermes termites from savanna woodland chimpanzee sites. PlosOne. PLoS ONE 16(2): e0244685. https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0244685



    Oelze, V. M., Wittig R.M., Lemoine S., Kuehl H.S., Boesch C. (2020): How isotopic signatures relate to meat consumption in wild chimpanzees: A critical reference study from Taï National Park, Côte d’Ivoire. Journal of Human Evolution 146, 102817


    Oelze, V. M., Percher A., Nsi Akoué G. , El Ksabi N., Willaume E. , Charpentier M.J.E. (2020): Seasonality and inter-individual variation in mandrill feeding ecology revealed by stable isotope analyses of hair and blood. American Journal of Primatology 82 (12), https://doi.org/10.1002/ajp.23206


    Washburn, E., Tomasto E., Nesbitt J., Burger R, Oelze V.M., Fehren-Schmitz L (2020): Carbon and nitrogen isotopic evidence of diet among individuals interred at the Late Preceramic Period/Initial Period Site of La Galgada, Peru. Journal of Archaeological Science- Reports 31, 102309



    Wessling E.G., Oelze V.M., Eshuis H., Pruetz J.D., Kühl H.S. (2019): Stable isotope variation in savanna chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) indicate avoidance of energetic challenges through dietary compensation at the limits of the range. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 168 (4), 665-675. DOI:10.1002/ajpa.23782




    van Casteren A., Oelze, V.M., Angedakin S., Kalan A.K., Kambi M., Boesch C., Kuehl H.S., Langergraber K.E., Piel A.K., Stewart F.A., Kupczik K. (2018): Food mechanical properties and isotopic signatures in forest versus savannah dwelling eastern chimpanzees. Communications Biology 1 (1), #109


    Muenster A., Knipper C., Oelze V.M., Nicklisch N., Stecher M., Schlenker B., Ganslmeier R., Fragata M., Friederich S., Dresely V., Hubensack V., Brandt G., Doehle J., Vach W., Schwarz R., Metzner-Nebelsick C., Meller H., Alt K.W. (2018): 4000 years of human dietary evolution in Central Germany, from the first farmers to the first elites. PlosOne. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0194862



    Scheffrahn, R.H., Bourguignon T., Bordereau C., Hernandez-Aguilar R.A., Oelze V.M., Dieguez P., Sobotnik, J., Pascual-Garrido, A. (2017): White-gutted soldiers: simplification of the digestive tube for a non-particulate diet in higher Old World termites (Isoptera: Termitidae). Insectes Sociaux,1-9.



    Oelze, V. M., Fahy, G. E., Hohmann, G., Robbins, M. M., Leinert, V., Lee, K., Eshuis, H., Seiler, N., Wessling, E. G., Head, J. S., Boesch, C., & Kuehl, H. S. (2016). Comparative isotope ecology of African great apes. Journal of Human Evolution, 101, 1-16.


    Crowley, B., Reitsema, L., Oelze, V. M., & Sponheimer, M. (2016). Advances in primate stable isotope ecology-achievements and future prospects. American Journal of Primatology, 78(10), 995-1003.


    Special Issue in the American Journal of Primatology, co-edited by Brooke E. Crowley, Laurie J. Reitsema, Vicky M. Oelze and Matt Sponheimer (2016): "Advances In Primate Stable Isotope Ecology"


    Mundry, R., and Oelze, V. M. (2016). Who is who matters - the effects of pseudoreplication in stable isotope analysis. American Journal of Primatology, 78(10), 1017-1030.


    Oelze, V. M. (2016). Reconstructing temporal variation in great ape and other primate diets: A methodological framework for isotope analyses in hair. American Journal of Primatology, 78(10), 1004-1016.


    Oelze, V. M., Douglas, P. H., Stephens, C. R., Behringer, V., Surbeck, M., Richards, M. P., Fruth, B., & Hohmann, G. (2016). The steady state great ape? Long term isotopic records reveal the effects of season, social rank and reproductive status on bonobo feeding behaviour. PlosOne, 11(9): e0162091.



    Oelze, V. M., Head, J. S., Robbins, M. M., Richards, M. P., & Boesch, C. (2014). Niche differentiation and dietary seasonality among sympatric gorillas and chimpanzees in Loango National Park (Gabon) revealed by stable isotope analysis. Journal of Human Evolution, 66(1), 95-106.


    Nehlich, O., Oelze, V. M., Jay, M., Conrad, M., Staeuble, H., Teegan, W.-R., & Richards, M. P. (2014). Sulphur isotope ratios of multi-period archaeological skeletal remains from central Germany: A dietary and mobility study. Anthropologie: international journal of the science of man, 52(1), 15-33.



    Oelze, V. M., Nehlich, O., & Richards, M. P. (2012). "There's no place like home" - No isotopic evidence for mobility at the Early Bronze Age cemetery of Singen, Germany. Archaeometry, 54(4), 752-778.


    Oelze, V. M., Koch, J. K., Kupke, K., Nehlich, O., Zaeuner, S., Wahl, J., Weise, S. M., Rieckhoff, S., & Richards, M. P. (2012). Multi-isotopic analysis reveals individual mobility and diet at the Early Iron Age Monumental Tumulus of Magdalenenberg, Germany. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 148(3), 406-421.


    Deschner, T., Fuller, B. T., Oelze, V. M., Boesch, C., Hublin, J.-J., Mundry, R., Richards, M. P., Ortmann, S., & Hohmann, G. (2012). Identification of energy consumption and nutritional stress by isotopic and elemental analysis of urine in bonobos (Pan paniscus). Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry, 26(1), 69-77.


    Oelze, V. (2012). Mobility and diet in Neolithic, Bronze Age and Iron Age Germany: evidence from multiple isotope analysis. PhD Thesis, Department of Human Origins, Faculty of Archaeology, Leiden Univ., Leiden.



    Oelze, V. M., Fuller, B. T., Richards, M. P., Fruth, B., Surbeck, M., Hublin, J.-J., & Hohmann, G. (2011). Exploring the contribution and significance of animal protein in the diet of bonobos by stable isotope ratio analysis of hair. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 108(24), 9792-9797.


    Oelze, V. M., Siebert, A., Nicklisch, N., Meller, H., Dresely, V., & Alt, K. W. (2011). Early Neolithic diet and animal husbandry: stable isotope evidence from three Linearbandkeramik (LBK) sites in Central Germany. Journal of Archaeological Science, 38(2), 270-279.



    meet our collaborators and their projects

    picture by Alex Piel

    Greater Mahale Ecosystem Research and Conservation (GMERC)

    (formerly Ugalla Primate Project)

    We are collaborating with GMERC on numerous projects on chimpanzee termite fishing behavior, termite ecology and camera trap data. The GMERC project is located in the savanna/Miombo woodland landscape of the Issa Valley in Tanzania, East Africa. Research at GMERC focuses on the behavior, ecology, and conservation of the wildlife and especially primates that live across the Greater Mahale Ecosystem.

    Taï Chimpanzee Project (TCP)

    Since 2015, Vicky Oelze is collaborating with TCP on the stable isotope ecology of the Taï chimpanzees and Taï forest. Our main interest is the relationship between meat eating behavior in the Taï chimpanzees and the stable isotope ratios of hair. In another project we investigate the stratification in plant stable isotope ratios within the forest canopy. The Taï Chimpanzee Project is located in Côte d’Ivoire, West Africa, and has been established over thirty years ago by Christophe and Hedwige Boesch. Today the project is co-directed by Roman Wittig and Catherine Crockford and is following three habituated neighboring communities of chimpanzees.

    Photo by Caroline Deimel

    LuiKotale Bonobo Project

    Since 2009, Vicky Oelze is collaborating with Gottfried Hohmann and Barbara Fruth on the isotope ecology of the LuiKotale bonobos. This collaboration is still ongoing with a current project on bonobo infant weaning behavior. The site, with today 2 habituated bonobo groups and another under habituation, is located close to the Western border of Salonga National Park in DRC, which belongs to the largest remaining forest blocks in Africa.

    picture by Vicky Oelze

    UCSC Isotope Facilities

    We measure our stable isotope samples on the UCSC campus either in the Stable Isotope Lab (C, N, S, O)
    or in the Keck Lab (Sr)
    picture by Vicky Oelze

    Emergent Treeworks

    Research on the ecology of living primates can get a very different perspective if one is high up in the trees. Trust us, it's a fact! Will Koomjian, certified arborist, tree climber, and undisputed tree nerd, instructs and assists researchers worldwide in accessing the crowns of the canopy for their projects. Will worked with Vicky in Taï National Park in 2015. In the field season of 2017, Vicky worked with another stellar arborist, the late James Luce who passed away in summer 2020 and is dearly missed. The publication Lowry et al. (in review) is dedicated to James. (https://www.arborcanada.com/instructors/Luce-James/)

  • teaching

    Classes in and around the lab


    Evolution of Human Diet

    fall quarter 2017, 2018, 2020, summer session 2021


    This lecture discusses the evolution of human diet and subsistence from a biological anthropological perspective, including evidence on past human behaviors revealed by paleoanthropology, archaeology, archaeometry, primatology, genetics and osteology. It will introduce the students to the main hypothesis related to the evolution of dietary behavior from our early ancestors up to the transition to agriculture and animal husbandry, from man the hunted - to man the hunter - to man the cook – to man the farmer.


    ANTH 106

    Primate Behavior & Ecology

    spring quarter 2017, 2018, 2019, 2020, 2021


    This lecture covers the fundamentals of the ecology, behavior and evolution of non-human primates, and how to study these in the wild. The topics encompassed include the human perception of primates, primate life history, feeding ecology, socioecology, concepts of group living and social behavior, communication, endocrinology, mating systems and kin selection. Moreover the course will focus on great apes, their societies, culture and cognition.

    ANTH 107B

    Stable Isotope Ecology

    spring quarter 2018, spring quarter 2019, summer session 2019, spring 2021

    This combination of lectures and now also hands-on lab experiences (sample collection, sample prep, collagen extraction) provides students with a comprehensive overview of stable isotope research in fossil hominoids, prehistoric human populations and non-human primates. We discover the wide application of isotopic research in biological anthropology, bioarcheology, primatology, forensics and wildlife ecology.

    ANTH 107C

    Chimpanzee Behavior & Culture




    This course on chimpanzee behavioral diversity will provide students with in depth understanding of the study of chimpanzee behavior from direct observations and camera trap footage. Students gain hands-on experience with the deployment and maintenance of our own trail cameras in the UCSC upper camps forest. Using free behavioral coding software (BORIS), we will also develop ethograms and analyze hundreds of videos of wild chimpanzees from Tanzania and assess their behavior.

    ANTH Independent Study

    Chimpanzee Video Coding Team




    In this team project of up to 12 undergraduate students we code camera trap video footage from the Issa Valley in Tanzania, as savanna chimpanzee field site we are collaborating with via GMERC. Our task is to go through the video material, identify animal species and their behaviors, and entering the information into excel. We intensively discuss the identification of age, sex and individuals in chimpanzees. We meet at least once per week and discuss our progress and problems, and share our video highlights with each other. Actively participating student can obtain credits for 2-5 units (independent study).

    It’s all in your head. Credit: Tumblr via Pia Hollund

    ANTH 103

    Forensic Anthropology & Bioarchaeology

    spring 2017


    This hands-on lab class introduces students to the classic bioanthropological methods to determine age, sex, ancestry, body stature and health in human skeletal remains, such as modern forensic cases or archaeologically recovered material.


    ANTH 294

    Advanced Readings in Biological Anthropology



    This class is a small discussion round of PIs, grad students and postdocs that focuses on key research articles in our discipline. Advanced readings are novel or seminal journal articles suggested by the instructor or the participating graduate students. These papers will be relevant to biological anthropology in general, archaeological sciences or human evolution and we will particularly focus on articles employing isotope biogeochemistry and ancient DNA analytics. We will read, summarize and critically discuss research articles and rotate with the responsibilities of presenting the key findings of each article.

  • NEWS

    What's happening in the PEMA lab?

    picture by Alex Piel

    our labs former undergraduate student Cielo De La Rosa 

    receives 2020-2021 Dean's Undergraduate Research Award for her senior thesis on Investigations on chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) termite-fishing cognition: Issa, western Tanzania. Her project was selected among the top 3 of all applications across the division. Congratulations Cielo for this recognition!

    picture by Paul Amblard-Rambert

    Our new isotope study on mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx) from Gabon made it on the cover of AJP! Find out more about the project at: http://www.projetmandrillus.com/

    November 2020

    picture by Gaelle Bocksberger

    UCSC NEWS - donation allows PEMA lab to build a strontium isotope map of equatorial Africa

    February 2020

    Vicky was honored to join a special dinner with Jane Goodall, hosted by the Walt Disney Family in October 2019

    November 2019

    picture by Vicky Oelze

    Chimpanzee video coding team 2019 (several folks missing on this pic). We are turning this independent study group into a lab class in Winter 2020

    December 2019

    picture by VO

    Stable Isotope Ecology (ANTH 107B) class 2019 in the "field"

    ​successful and fun field sampling tour with both grads and undergrads; we went and explored upper campus forest and found many interesting plants, animals and fungi, which we prepared for stable isotope analysis

    May 2019

    picture by Vicky Oelze

    fume hood - Lab safety first!

    Dec 19th 2018: Good to know that a human dummy is good to use my brand new fume hood without inhaling toxic gases. Hope this level of safety also applies to real humans made of flesh & blood. Lab safety first!

    Seth in the field 2017/2018

    video by the GMERC team

    Field work is what you make of it!

    picture by Alex Piel

    UCSC News - "Tough life in the savanna"